Despite improvements since independence, Indian agriculture does not generally exhibit high production or efficiency.
Here are a few causes for this predicament:
First, population pressure
Since there is a limited amount of land, it is practically impossible to expand the area that can be farmed. The demand for land is enormous as a result of population growth. Even though India’s land-to-human ratio is better than that of some developed nations, including China, Japan, the Netherlands, and Belgium, the country still faces the issue of population pressure on agricultural land due to other factors like extremely low yields and low levels of industrialization.
Less than two hectares made up the average size of landholdings in India in 2001. One-fourth of all rural households are landless, while another one-fourth have an average land size of fewer than 0.4 hectares. This makes it impossible to apply modern inputs, adopt scientific methods for improving the soil, conserving water, protecting plants, and introducing mechanized processes. These actions alone can guarantee and stabilize high yields. This issue has been made worse by the slow pace of land reforms in the majority of states. Land consolidation can increase production.
Uncertain Monsoons and Poor Irrigation Infrastructure:
The failure or inadequacy of precipitation causes fluctuations in yields because more than half of the gross cultivated area is rained. Around 86.5 MHA of gross cultivated land will continue to be rained even if the full irrigation capacity is realized. This emphasizes the requirement for the scientific development of rained agriculture.
The Subsistence Nature of Agriculture
Indian agriculture is distinguished by its subsistence nature, meaning that most of the produce is consumed directly by the producers and that any excess is often small. This is due to the fact that most Indian farmers, who are often impoverished, employ out-of-date tools and technology and cannot afford expensive inputs. Low levels of returns and meager incomes, as a result, lead to low levels of savings and reinvestments. As a result, a vicious spiral takes place, and agriculture is stagnant.
Soil fertility decline:
For an agricultural nation like India, the soil is a valuable resource, and soil degradation is a major issue that contributes to the loss of soil fertility.
The primary kind of deterioration brought on by deforestation and unreliable agricultural methods like shifting cropping is soil erosion.
Other causes of soil fertility loss include poor management and repetitive use, which increases salt, alkalinity, and aridity.
Not Enough Support Services
The institutional support aspects, such as support price, promotion, and lending facilities, are meant by this. By assuming the risks associated with the agricultural industry, these services assist in fostering an environment that encourages an entrepreneurial spirit among farmers. In the case of coarse cereals and pulses, these services are especially deficient.
Poor resource management and a lack of initiative:
India’s agricultural institutions and infrastructure are underdeveloped. The development of a class of agricultural entrepreneurs is hampered by conditions of poverty, deprivation, and unequal distribution of land resources.
Solution for low agriculture productivity in India
Better irrigation infrastructure Monsoons are crucial to Indian agriculture. Therefore, permanent watering methods should be devised.
Quality seeds should be distributed through cooperative groups or local Panchayats.
Chemical fertilizers should be produced in greater quantities and made more affordable for farmers to purchase. Farmers ought to receive training on burning green manure.
Oil cakes are a possible fertilizer.
Loans for farmers should be provided at fair interest rates. Regional Rural Banks ought to be established.
Small farmers should be granted loans from commercial banks under convenient conditions. Examining local moneylenders is necessary to stop their unethical behavior.
Marketing for Agriculture
Agricultural marketing should be better so that the farmer gets a good price for their produce. Warehousing facilities should be better. Means of Transport should be strengthened. Keeping pace markets and Cooperative marketing societies should be established.
For the growth of agriculture, land reforms are essential. The progress of agriculture depends on land reforms. The Zamindari system ought to be eliminated. Land ownership should be given to cultivators. A cap on land ownership ought to be put in place. Farms should be of a minimum size. Solving the water logging and soil erosion problems is important. It is advisable to cultivate wasteland.
Farmers should receive training to practice mixed farming. The term “mixed farming” describes the simultaneous practice of raising crops, caring for animals, and growing vegetables and fruits.
Farmers should be educated in general and in farming operations in particular by agricultural departments and extension education departments of agricultural universities. They will learn about the newest cultivation techniques. They are going to produce more.
Support for Small Farmers
With a high-yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers, and modern agricultural practices, small and marginal farmers should be assisted. Farmers should be eligible for loans with low-interest rates.
Crop production will rise as a result of the Green Revolution and mechanized farming. Thus, crop prices will decrease. The government should make sure that prices don’t drop and that farmers can get a fair price.
Plans are made for agricultural growth, but their proper completion is not done, and farmers are not able to derive the necessary advantage. So for this, efficient and dedicated officers with agricultural backgrounds should post for proper implementation of these policies.
Reduced Population Pressure:
Reduced population pressure on the land is necessary. The hidden unemployment in agriculture should be absorbed by more industrial units. There should be population control measures used.
Farmers should receive training before implementing mechanized farming. This means should display new varieties of seeds as well as agricultural equipment and tools.
Various scientific cultivation techniques should be used. Farmers should employ methods like crop rotation, fertilizer use, and pesticide application. Farmers that use new technologies need to be supported. It will be helpful to conduct further research on the crops, seeds, and fertilizers.